Section: Linux Programmer's Manual (5)
Return to Main Contents
hosts - static table lookup for hostnames
This manual page describes the format of the
This file is a simple text file that associates IP addresses
with hostnames, one line per IP address.
For each host a single
line should be present with the following information:
IP_address canonical_hostname [aliases...]
Fields of the entry are separated by any number of blanks and/or
Text from a "#" character until the end of the line is
a comment, and is ignored.
Host names may contain only alphanumeric
characters, minus signs ("-"), and periods (".").
They must begin with an
alphabetic character and end with an alphanumeric character.
Optional aliases provide for name changes, alternate spellings,
shorter hostnames, or generic hostnames (for example,
The Berkeley Internet Name Domain (BIND) Server implements the
Internet name server for UNIX systems.
It augments or replaces the
file or hostname lookup, and frees a host from relying on
being up to date and complete.
In modern systems, even though the host table has been superseded by
DNS, it is still widely used for:
Most systems have a small host table containing the name and address
information for important hosts on the local network.
This is useful
when DNS is not running, for example during system bootup.
Sites that use NIS use the host table as input to the NIS host
Even though NIS can be used with DNS, most NIS sites still
use the host table with an entry for all local hosts as a backup.
- isolated nodes
Very small sites that are isolated from the network use the host table
instead of DNS.
If the local information rarely changes, and the
network is not connected to the Internet, DNS offers little
Modifications to this file normally take effect immediately,
except in cases where the file is cached by applications.
RFC 952 gave the original format for the host table, though it has
Before the advent of DNS, the host table was the only way of resolving
hostnames on the fledgling Internet.
Indeed, this file could be
created from the official host data base maintained at the Network
Information Control Center (NIC), though local changes were often
required to bring it up to date regarding unofficial aliases and/or
The NIC no longer maintains the hosts.txt files,
though looking around at the time of writing (circa 2000), there are
historical hosts.txt files on the WWW.
I just found three, from 92,
94, and 95.
192.168.1.10 foo.mydomain.org foo
192.168.1.13 bar.mydomain.org bar
184.108.40.206 master.debian.org master
Internet RFC 952
This page is part of release 3.74 of the Linux
A description of the project,
information about reporting bugs,
and the latest version of this page,
can be found at
- Historical notes
- SEE ALSO