Section: User Commands (1)
Updated: July 2014Index
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unshare - run program with some namespaces unshared from parent
Unshares the indicated namespaces from the parent process and then executes
the specified program
. The namespaces to be unshared are indicated via
options. Unshareable namespaces are:
- mount namespace
Mounting and unmounting filesystems will not affect the rest of the system
(CLONE_NEWNS flag), except for filesystems which are explicitly marked as
shared (with mount --make-shared; see /proc/self/mountinfo for the
It's recommended to use mount --make-rprivate or mount --make-rslave
after unshare --mount to make sure that mountpoints in the new namespace
are really unshared from the parental namespace.
- UTS namespace
Setting hostname or domainname will not affect the rest of the system.
- IPC namespace
The process will have an independent namespace for System V message queues,
semaphore sets and shared memory segments. (CLONE_NEWIPC flag)
- network namespace
The process will have independent IPv4 and IPv6 stacks, IP routing tables,
firewall rules, the /proc/net and /sys/class/net directory trees,
sockets, etc. (CLONE_NEWNET flag)
- pid namespace
Children will have a distinct set of PID to process mappings from their parent.
- user namespace
The process will have a distinct set of UIDs, GIDs and capabilities.
See clone(2) for the exact semantics of the flags.
- -h, --help
Display help text and exit.
- -i, --ipc
Unshare the IPC namespace.
- -m, --mount
Unshare the mount namespace.
- -n, --net
Unshare the network namespace.
- -p, --pid
Unshare the pid namespace.
See also the --fork and --mount-proc options.
- -u, --uts
Unshare the UTS namespace.
- -U, --user
Unshare the user namespace.
- -f, --fork
Fork the specified program as a child process of unshare rather than
running it directly. This is useful when creating a new pid namespace.
Just before running the program, mount the proc filesystem at mountpoint
(default is /proc). This is useful when creating a new pid namespace. It also
implies creating a new mount namespace since the /proc mount would otherwise
mess up existing programs on the system. The new proc filesystem is explicitly
mounted as private (by MS_PRIVATE|MS_REC).
- -r, --map-root-user
Run the program only after the current effective user and group IDs have been mapped to
the superuser UID and GID in the newly created user namespace. This makes it possible to
conveniently gain capabilities needed to manage various aspects of the newly created
namespaces (such as configuring interfaces in the network namespace or mounting filesystems in
the mount namespace) even when run unprivileged. As a mere convenience feature, it does not support
more sophisticated use cases, such as mapping multiple ranges of UIDs and GIDs.
None known so far.
Mikhail Gusarov <email@example.com
The unshare command is part of the util-linux package and is available from
- SEE ALSO